Important note: Please take note that although succinct notes are essential towards your revision, they should not be the only materials you cover — working through practice problems from your textbook and past papers are just as important. App: For revision on the go, download our Android app.
Offline access: For offline access, download offline browser and type in ibphysics. Hi, David. I used your site to review my exam, and it is very good.
I actually take notes from your notes on this site, even. However, it seems like the version of the formula booklet you have here is outdated.
Apart from that, loved your site, and your notes! David, you are magic. I am going to be going to Grade 11 in September, and I already feel ready to tackle this subject: your notes are very nicely organized and super helpful: thank you for taking the time to do this!
Thanks for this app. Which of these classes you took? I would appreciate if you make similar apps for other subjects like Maths. For maths, I suggest you work through past paper problems. David this Site is just awesomethanx for your contribution i was able to revise my entire syllabus within one Day you have done a really wonderful job here.
Just one more question do you maintain any sites for chemistry or mathsfor my chem and Maths HL Exams are near and i really dont have much time left and thanx in advance. What were your other two HLs? There is an error in Option D:Astrophysics. Wavelength of cosmic background ratiation increases overtime, it does not decrease. Hey David, thanks a lot for all the physics content. Really helped me throughout IB.
Keep up the good work. Hey David! First of all, thank you so much.
Glad that you found the notes useful and yes you are right.See the guide for this topic. An object undergoes SHM if it experiences a force which is proportional and opposite of the displacement from its equilibrium position. The period is independent of the amplitude of the SHM and can be given by the following equation. A travelling wave is a continuous disturbance in a medium characterized by repeating oscillations. For example:.
The direction of oscillation is parallel to the direction of the wave Example:. A point with minimum displacement is called a trough. A region where particles are closed to each other is called a compression. A region where particles are furthest apart from each other is called a rarefaction.
The principle of superposition states that the net displacement of the underlying medium for a wave is equal to the sum of the individual wave displacements. The left shows constructive interference superposition where the two waves add up e. The right shows deconstructive interference superposition where the two waves cancel each other e.
The polarization of light refers to the orientation of the oscillation in the underlying electric field. When light is transmitted across a boundary between two mediums with different refractive indexes, part of the light is reflected and the remaining part is refracted for further explanation, see section 4. The light reflected is partially polarized, meaning that it is a mixture of polarized light and unpolarized light.
The extent to which the reflected light is polarized depends on the angle of incidence and the refractive index of the two mediums. The refractive index and the critical angle are related by the following equation Total internal reflection only occurs when the light ray propagates from a optically denser medium to an optically less dense medium.
Maximums form at constructive interference the maximum is shown by and minimums form at deconstructive interference the first minimum is shown by Like single-slit diffraction, double-slit diffraction occurs via the same methods of interference and has a similar diffraction pattern. Standing waves stationary waves result from the superposition of two opposite waves which are otherwise identical.
Standing waves on a string is equivalent to that in a pipe which is closed on both ends nodes-node. Note that even harmonics do not exist for pipes with one closed end and one open end nth Harmonic. Positions along the wave which are fixed are called nodes minimum and those with the largest displacement are called antinodes maximum. Simple harmonic motion SHM is a special type of oscillation. For example: The simple pendulum The vibration of strings in a violin The spring-mass system, where the mass is initially displaced to produce a periodic motion around the equilibrium position An object undergoes SHM if it experiences a force which is proportional and opposite of the displacement from its equilibrium position.
The magnitude of the restoring force must be proportional to the displacement of the body and acts towards the equilibrium. Energy is transferred by waves.International Baccalaureate IB. Even with the best teacher, you will likely need to spend some time studying on your own to understand the most difficult concepts covered in the course. In this study guide, I've compiled links to all of the best free IB Physics study guides so you can easily find notes on the topic you're interested in. I organized this guide using the IB Physics syllabus.
Because of the COVID coronavirus pandemic, all IB exams for May have been canceled and coursework deadlines have been extended for schools that have closed. Type "Relativity" and it will bring you to all of the material for Relativity.
If you are looking for overall study material for the IB Physics Exam, skip to the end of this guide to the Overall Reviews section for great overall study resources. Does your school report your GPA as weighted or unweighted? What would your GPA be, considered on a 4. Use our tool to calculate your unweighted and weighted GPA to figure out how you stack up against other college applicants. You'll also get our proprietary college core GPA calculation and advice on where to improve to be a better college applicant.
These are notes, practice, questions, and videos covering all of the IB Physics topics mentioned above. These are great resources to use when reviewing for the IB Physics exam.
Now that you know where to find IB Physics notes, what's the best way to use them? Follow these three tips to get the most out of your notes. If you learn about a new topic in class and don't quite understand it, it can be be tempting to just forget about it and move onto the next lesson. Don't do this! The longer you wait to go over the topic, the harder it will be to actually understand it because you will have forgotten more of what you learned about it in class.
There are so many topics you cover in IB Physics that if you do not keep up with the material during the school year, you will find it nearly impossible to catch up.
Don't wait until the last minute to begin your review. You will not be able to master it all in a few days or even a few weeks which is why the class is taught over 1 to 2 years. Make sure you conquer the topics when your teacher covers it in class. Use this study guide for additional help.
Practice tests are also a key part of studying.IB Physics: Standing Waves and Harmonics
Once you feel you're pretty confident with your knowledge of the material, take a few practice exams to get a feel for what to expect on test day. Check out our guide on IB Physics past papers for free resources you can use.
Want more IB Physics study resources? We also have a few articles on the PrepScholar blog that you might find helpful for physics studying. Read up on the law of conservation of massthe specific heat of waterand the formulas you need to calculate acceleration. Not sure which other IB classes to take? Learn more about the other IB classes offered and which IB classes are offered online.
Almost finished with your IB courses? Check out our guide to learn when your IB exam scores will be available. One of the single most important parts of your college application is what classes you choose to take in high school in conjunction with how well you do in those classes.
Our team of PrepScholar admissions experts have compiled their knowledge into this single guide to planning out your high school course schedule.
She loves watching students succeed and is committed to helping you get there.Physics SL. Topic 1: Measurements and Uncertainties. Topic 2: Mechanics. Topic 3: Thermal Physics.
Topic 4: Waves. Topic 5: Electricity and Magnetism. Topic 6: Circular Motion and Gravitation. Topic 7: Particle, Atomic, and Nuclear Physics. Topic 8: Energy Production. Physics HL. Topic 9: Wave Phenomena. Topic Field. Topic Electromagnetic Induction. Topic Quantum and Nuclear Physics. Chemistry SL. Topic 1: Stoichiometric Relationships. Topic 2: Atomic Structure. Topic 3: Periodicity. Topic 4: Chemical Bonding and Structure.
Topic 6: Chemical Kinetics. Topic 7: Equilibrium. Topic 8: Acids and Bases.Opposite charges attract each other, while like charges repel each other. Principle of conservation of charge : Total charge is always conserved. Electric force. Electric fields. No electric field inside a conducting sphere. The field is stronger where the lines are more packed together. The field lines never touch each other. Normally, there is movement of charges in both directions, so it is cancelled and no current flows.
When the electric field "rises", the current forms itself instantaneously. If protons carry positive charge from A to B, then we have no problem in saying that the current flows from A to B.
A gets less positive, B gets more positive. But, if electrons carry negative charge from A to B, clearly the current is in the opposite direction. A is now getting more positive and B less positive. Electric potential V. Circuit diagram. Combining resistors:. Potential divider. Potentiometer rheostat : allows a wide range of potential differences, depending on the connection point of the slider, giving a max-value emf, an advantage of series of resistors.
Kirchhoff's circuit laws. In series with the circuit, with ideal zero resistance. Non-ideal ammeters have low constant resistance. In parallel with the circuit, with ideal infinite resistance.
Non-ideal voltmeters have high constant resistance. V-I graph for a real cell:. Battery: chemical energy transformed into thermal, mechanical, Recharging process: Return the energy in the reverse current direction at dp above nominal.
Opposite poles attract each other, while like poles repel each other. Electric currents produce magnetic fields, e.
Earth's molten iron core. Similar properties as the electric field lines. Then the direction in which the fingers curls is the direction of the 'flow' of the magnetic field vectors". Tsokos, Representation of current. Magnetic force on a moving charge. There is no magnetic force on a moving charge if the charge moves along the field direction. Motion of charges in magnetic fields: no work is done, as force is perpendicular to speed.
Unit: tesla T. Tip: "We have to distinguish the conventional current - the flow of positive charge - and the flow of charge-carriers. Cells Battery: chemical energy transformed into thermal, mechanical,See the guide for this topic. Temperatures describe how hot or cold an object is and determines the direction of heat flow between two bodies.
Thermal energy transfers from an object with higher temperature to another object with lower temperature. The energy transfer is called heat the flow of energy due to temperature difference.
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Objects which are in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature. The absolute temperature of a body in the Kelvin scale is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy per molecule inside the body.
Temperatures cannot be lower than absolute zero. It is the temperature where particles have zero average kinetic energy no random motion. Internal energy is the sum of total kinetic energy total thermal energy and total potential energy.
Different substances have different specific heat capacities because of different densities and physical properties. During a phase change, temperature and kinetic energy remain constant and potential energy changes which increases as molecules spread out and vice versa.
Boiling: Only occurs at the boiling point a specific temperature depending on substance and occurs throughout the liquid. Evaporation: Can occur at any temperature and only occurs at the surface of the liquid. The fastest moving particles evaporate, decreasing the average KE of the remaining particles.
As a result, temperature drops. Specific latent heat of fusion: The amount of heat required to change 1kg of a substance from solid to liquid without any change in temperature. Specific latent heat of vaporization: The amount of heat required to change 1kg of a substance from liquid to gas without any change in temperature. Absolute temperature is directly proportional to the average KE and average speed of the molecules of an ideal gas.
The ideal gas is based on a list of assumptions stated previously. However, in real gases, such assumptions may not be true. Temperature and absolute temperature Temperatures describe how hot or cold an object is and determines the direction of heat flow between two bodies.
Temperatures in Kelvin can be calculated by deducting the temperatures in Celsius by Absolute zero is 0K or degrees Celsius. Internal energy Internal energy is the sum of total kinetic energy total thermal energy and total potential energy. Potential energy is associated with forces between molecules. Specific heat capacity The specific heat capacity of a substance is given by and is defined by the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of the substance by 1K.
Phase change Change of phase Process Kinetic energy Potential energy Solid to liquid Melting Unchanged Increases Liquid to solid Freezing Unchanged Decreases Liquid to gas Boiling Unchanged Increases Gas to liquid Condensation Unchanged Decreases During a phase change, temperature and kinetic energy remain constant and potential energy changes which increases as molecules spread out and vice versa.
FYI Boiling: Only occurs at the boiling point a specific temperature depending on substance and occurs throughout the liquid. Specific latent heat The specific latent heat of a substance is given by Specific latent heat of fusion: The amount of heat required to change 1kg of a substance from solid to liquid without any change in temperature.
The molecules are identical spheres.See the guide for this topic. An object with equal amounts of positive change and negative charge is said to be electrically neutral. Electric charge is always conserved. While charges could migrate from one body to another, the total charge remains the same. Conductors are materials which allow the passage of electric charge. This is due to the presence of free electrons in solid conductors.
The electric field lines curve outwards near the edge of the plates. Electric field strength E is the force per unit charge experienced by a positive test change placed in a field. For uniform electric fields, the electric field strength can be calculated by. The existence of an electric potential difference see the last section of 5.
Electric current I refers to the rate of flow of electric charge and can be given by the equation. The direction of an conventional electric current is opposite to the direction of electron flow. The electric potential difference pd between two points is equal to the work done energy required per unit charge to move from one point to another.
It is also known as voltage V. Voltage is analogical to the differences of upstreams and downstreams where water flow in the stream is the flow of electrons within the circuit. A resistor is an electrical component which implements a specific resistance within an electric circuit.
The sum of all currents flowing into a junction must equal the sum of all currents flowing out. For a complete loop of an electrical circuit all of the electric potential rises added together must equal all of the electric potential drops added together.
The resistance R of an object can be seen as a measure of opposition to electric current through the object. It is given by the ratio between the electric potential difference V and the current induced I.